Welcome to GeoPy’s documentation!

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Documentation:https://geopy.readthedocs.io/
Source Code:https://github.com/geopy/geopy
Issue Tracker:https://github.com/geopy/geopy/issues
Stack Overflow:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/geopy
PyPI:https://pypi.org/project/geopy/

geopy is a Python 2 and 3 client for several popular geocoding web services.

geopy makes it easy for Python developers to locate the coordinates of addresses, cities, countries, and landmarks across the globe using third-party geocoders and other data sources.

geopy is tested against CPython (versions 2.7, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7), PyPy, and PyPy3. geopy does not and will not support CPython 2.6.

Installation

pip install geopy

Geocoders

Each geolocation service you might use, such as Google Maps, Bing Maps, or Nominatim, has its own class in geopy.geocoders abstracting the service’s API. Geocoders each define at least a geocode method, for resolving a location from a string, and may define a reverse method, which resolves a pair of coordinates to an address. Each Geocoder accepts any credentials or settings needed to interact with its service, e.g., an API key or locale, during its initialization.

To geolocate a query to an address and coordinates:

>>> from geopy.geocoders import Nominatim
>>> geolocator = Nominatim(user_agent="specify_your_app_name_here")
>>> location = geolocator.geocode("175 5th Avenue NYC")
>>> print(location.address)
Flatiron Building, 175, 5th Avenue, Flatiron, New York, NYC, New York, ...
>>> print((location.latitude, location.longitude))
(40.7410861, -73.9896297241625)
>>> print(location.raw)
{'place_id': '9167009604', 'type': 'attraction', ...}

To find the address corresponding to a set of coordinates:

>>> from geopy.geocoders import Nominatim
>>> geolocator = Nominatim(user_agent="specify_your_app_name_here")
>>> location = geolocator.reverse("52.509669, 13.376294")
>>> print(location.address)
Potsdamer Platz, Mitte, Berlin, 10117, Deutschland, European Union
>>> print((location.latitude, location.longitude))
(52.5094982, 13.3765983)
>>> print(location.raw)
{'place_id': '654513', 'osm_type': 'node', ...}

Locators’ geocode and reverse methods require the argument query, and also accept at least the argument exactly_one, which is True by default. Geocoders may have additional attributes, e.g., Bing accepts user_location, the effect of which is to bias results near that location. geocode and reverse methods may return three types of values:

  • When there are no results found, returns None.

  • When the method’s exactly_one argument is True and at least one result is found, returns a geopy.location.Location object, which can be iterated over as:

    (address<String>, (latitude<Float>, longitude<Float>))

    Or can be accessed as location.address, location.latitude, location.longitude, location.altitude, and location.raw. The last contains the full geocoder’s response for this result.

  • When exactly_one is False, and there is at least one result, returns a list of geopy.location.Location objects, as above:

    [location, [...]]

If a service is unavailable or otherwise returns a non-OK response, or doesn’t receive a response in the allotted timeout, you will receive one of the Exceptions detailed below.

Every geocoder accepts an argument format_string that defaults to '%s' where the input string to geocode is interpolated. For example, if you only need to geocode locations in Cleveland, Ohio, you could do:

>>> from geopy.geocoders import Nominatim
>>> geolocator = Nominatim(user_agent="specify_your_app_name_here",
...                        format_string="%s, Cleveland OH")
>>> address, (latitude, longitude) = geolocator.geocode("11111 Euclid Ave")
>>> print(address, latitude, longitude)
Thwing Center, 11111, Euclid Avenue, Magnolia-Wade Park Historic District, University Circle, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 44106, USA 41.5074076 -81.6083649792596
geopy.geocoders.get_geocoder_for_service(service)

For the service provided, try to return a geocoder class.

>>> from geopy.geocoders import get_geocoder_for_service
>>> get_geocoder_for_service("nominatim")
geopy.geocoders.osm.Nominatim

If the string given is not recognized, a geopy.exc.GeocoderNotFound exception is raised.

Default Options Object

class geopy.geocoders.options

The options object contains default configuration values for geocoders, e.g. timeout and User-Agent. Instead of passing a custom value to each geocoder individually, you can override a default value in this object.

Please note that not all geocoders use all attributes of this object. For example, some geocoders don’t respect the default_scheme attribute. Refer to the specific geocoder’s initializer doc for a list of parameters which that geocoder accepts.

Example for overriding default timeout and user_agent:

>>> import geopy.geocoders
>>> from geopy.geocoders import Nominatim
>>> geopy.geocoders.options.default_user_agent = 'my_app/1'
>>> geopy.geocoders.options.default_timeout = 7
>>> geolocator = Nominatim()
>>> print(geolocator.headers)
{'User-Agent': 'my_app/1'}
>>> print(geolocator.timeout)
7
Attributes:
default_format_string
String containing '%s' where the string to geocode should be interpolated before querying the geocoder. Used by geocode calls only. For example: '%s, Mountain View, CA'.
default_proxies

Tunnel requests through HTTP proxy.

By default the system proxies are respected (e.g. HTTP_PROXY and HTTPS_PROXY env vars or platform-specific proxy settings, such as macOS or Windows native preferences – see urllib.request.ProxyHandler for more details). The proxies value for using system proxies is None.

To disable system proxies and issue requests directly, explicitly pass an empty dict as a value for proxies: {}.

To use a custom HTTP proxy location, pass a string. Valid examples are:

  • "192.0.2.0:8080"
  • "john:passw0rd@192.0.2.0:8080"
  • "http://john:passw0rd@192.0.2.0:8080"

Please note:

  • Scheme part (http://) of the proxy is ignored.
  • Only http proxy is supported. Even if the proxy scheme is https, it will be ignored, and the connection between client and proxy would still be unencrypted. However, https requests via http proxy are still supported (via HTTP CONNECT method).

Raw urllib-style proxies dict might be provided instead of a string:

  • {"https": "192.0.2.0:8080"} – means that HTTP proxy would be used only for requests having https scheme. String proxies value is automatically used for both schemes, and is provided as a shorthand for the urllib-style proxies dict.

For more information, see documentation on urllib.request.ProxyHandler.

Changed in version 1.15.0: Added support for the string value.

default_scheme
Use 'https' or 'http' as the API URL’s scheme.
default_ssl_context

An ssl.SSLContext instance with custom TLS verification settings. Pass None to use the interpreter’s defaults (starting from Python 2.7.9 and 3.4.3 that is to use the system’s trusted CA certificates; the older versions don’t support TLS verification completely).

For older versions of Python (before 2.7.9 and 3.4.3) this argument is ignored, as urlopen doesn’t accept an ssl context there, and a warning is issued.

To use the CA bundle used by requests library:

import ssl
import certifi
import geopy.geocoders
ctx = ssl.create_default_context(cafile=certifi.where())
geopy.geocoders.options.default_ssl_context = ctx

To disable TLS certificate verification completely:

import ssl
import geopy.geocoders
ctx = ssl.create_default_context()
ctx.check_hostname = False
ctx.verify_mode = ssl.CERT_NONE
geopy.geocoders.options.default_ssl_context = ctx

See docs for the ssl.SSLContext class for more examples.

default_timeout
Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Pass None to disable timeout.
default_user_agent
User-Agent header to send with the requests to geocoder API.
default_format_string = '%s'
default_proxies = None
default_scheme = 'https'
default_ssl_context = None
default_timeout = 1
default_user_agent = 'geopy/1.17.0'

Usage with Pandas

It’s possible to geocode a pandas DataFrame with geopy, however, rate-limiting must be taken into account.

A large number of DataFrame rows might produce a significant amount of geocoding requests to a Geocoding service, which might be throttled by the service (e.g. by returning Too Many Requests 429 HTTP error or timing out).

geopy.extra.rate_limiter.RateLimiter class provides a convenient wrapper, which can be used to automatically add delays between geocoding calls to reduce the load on the Geocoding service. Also it can retry failed requests and swallow errors for individual rows.

If you’re having the Too Many Requests error, you may try the following:

  • Use geopy.extra.rate_limiter.RateLimiter with non-zero min_delay_seconds.
  • Try a different Geocoding service (please consult with their ToS first, as some services prohibit bulk geocoding).
  • Take a paid plan on the chosen Geocoding service, which provides higher quota.
  • Provision your own local copy of the Geocoding service (such as Nominatim).
class geopy.extra.rate_limiter.RateLimiter(func, min_delay_seconds=0.0, max_retries=2, error_wait_seconds=5.0, swallow_exceptions=True, return_value_on_exception=None)

RateLimiter allows to perform bulk operations while gracefully handling error responses and adding delays when needed.

Note

This is an experimental API which might be changed in the future. Please report any bugs, issues and suggestions on the issue tracker.

In the example below a delay of 1 second (min_delay_seconds=1) will be added between each pair of geolocator.geocode calls; all geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError exceptions will be retried (up to max_retries times):

import pandas as pd
df = pd.DataFrame({'name': ['paris', 'berlin', 'london']})

from geopy.geocoders import Nominatim
geolocator = Nominatim(user_agent="specify_your_app_name_here")

from geopy.extra.rate_limiter import RateLimiter
geocode = RateLimiter(geolocator.geocode, min_delay_seconds=1)
df['location'] = df['name'].apply(geocode)

df['point'] = df['location'].apply(lambda loc: tuple(loc.point) if loc else None)

This would produce the following DataFrame:

>>> df
     name                                           location  \
0   paris  (Paris, Île-de-France, France métropolitaine, ...
1  berlin  (Berlin, 10117, Deutschland, (52.5170365, 13.3...
2  london  (London, Greater London, England, SW1A 2DU, UK...

                           point
0   (48.8566101, 2.3514992, 0.0)
1  (52.5170365, 13.3888599, 0.0)
2  (51.5073219, -0.1276474, 0.0)

To pass extra options to the geocode call:

from functools import partial
df['location'] = df['name'].apply(partial(geocode, language='de'))

To see a progress bar:

from tqdm import tqdm
tqdm.pandas()
df['location'] = df['name'].progress_apply(geocode)

Before using this class, please consult with the Geocoding service ToS, which might explicitly consider bulk requests (even throttled) a violation.

New in version 1.16.0.

__init__(func, min_delay_seconds=0.0, max_retries=2, error_wait_seconds=5.0, swallow_exceptions=True, return_value_on_exception=None)
Parameters:
  • func (callable) – A function which should be wrapped by the RateLimiter.
  • min_delay_seconds (float) – Minimum delay in seconds between the wrapped func calls.
  • max_retries (int) – Number of retries on exceptions. Only geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError exceptions are retried – others are always re-raised. max_retries + 1 requests would be performed at max per query. Set max_retries=0 to disable retries.
  • error_wait_seconds (float) – Time to wait between retries after errors. Must be greater or equal to min_delay_seconds.
  • swallow_exceptions (bool) – Should an exception be swallowed after retries? If not, it will be re-raised. If yes, the return_value_on_exception will be returned.
  • return_value_on_exception – Value to return on failure when swallow_exceptions=True.

ArcGIS

class geopy.geocoders.ArcGIS(username=None, password=None, referer=None, token_lifetime=60, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, auth_domain='www.arcgis.com', domain='geocode.arcgis.com')

Geocoder using the ERSI ArcGIS API.

Documentation at:
https://developers.arcgis.com/rest/geocode/api-reference/overview-world-geocoding-service.htm
__init__(username=None, password=None, referer=None, token_lifetime=60, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, auth_domain='www.arcgis.com', domain='geocode.arcgis.com')
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, out_fields=None)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • out_fields (str or iterable) –

    A list of output fields to be returned in the attributes field of the raw data. This can be either a python list/tuple of fields or a comma-separated string. See https://developers.arcgis.com/rest/geocode/api-reference/geocoding-service-output.htm for a list of supported output fields. If you want to return all supported output fields, set out_fields="*".

    New in version 1.14.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, distance=None, wkid=4326)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • distance (int) – Distance from the query location, in meters, within which to search. ArcGIS has a default of 100 meters, if not specified.
  • wkid (str) –

    WKID to use for both input and output coordinates.

    Deprecated since version 1.14.0: It wasn’t working before because it was specified incorrectly in the request parameters, and won’t work even if we fix the request, because geopy.point.Point normalizes the coordinates according to WKID 4326. Please open an issue in the geopy issue tracker if you believe that custom wkid values should be supported. This parameter is scheduled for removal in geopy 2.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

AzureMaps

class geopy.geocoders.AzureMaps(subscription_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='atlas.microsoft.com')

Bases: geopy.geocoders.tomtom.TomTom

AzureMaps geocoder based on TomTom.

Documentation at:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/azure-maps/index

New in version 1.15.0.

__init__(subscription_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='atlas.microsoft.com')
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, limit=None, typeahead=False, language=None)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • limit (int) – Maximum amount of results to return from the service. Unless exactly_one is set to False, limit will always be 1.
  • typeahead (bool) – If the “typeahead” flag is set, the query will be interpreted as a partial input and the search will enter predictive mode.
  • language (str) – Language in which search results should be returned. When data in specified language is not available for a specific field, default language is used. List of supported languages (case-insensitive): https://developer.tomtom.com/online-search/online-search-documentation/supported-languages
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

Baidu

class geopy.geocoders.Baidu(api_key, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, security_key=None)

Geocoder using the Baidu Maps v2 API.

Documentation at:
http://lbsyun.baidu.com/index.php?title=webapi/guide/webservice-geocoding

New in version 1.0.0.

__init__(api_key, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, security_key=None)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available. Baidu’s API will always return at most one result.

    New in version 1.14.0.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

Bing

class geopy.geocoders.Bing(api_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Geocoder using the Bing Maps Locations API.

Documentation at:
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff701715.aspx
__init__(api_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, user_location=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, culture=None, include_neighborhood=None, include_country_code=False)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) –

    The address or query you wish to geocode.

    For a structured query, provide a dictionary whose keys are one of: addressLine, locality (city), adminDistrict (state), countryRegion, or postalcode.

  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • user_location (geopy.point.Point) – Prioritize results closer to this location.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • culture (str) –

    Affects the language of the response, must be a two-letter country code.

    New in version 1.4.0.

  • include_neighborhood (bool) –

    Sets whether to include the neighborhood field in the response.

    New in version 1.4.0.

  • include_country_code (bool) –

    Sets whether to include the two-letter ISO code of the country in the response (field name ‘countryRegionIso2’).

    New in version 1.4.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, culture=None, include_country_code=False)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • culture (str) – Affects the language of the response, must be a two-letter country code.
  • include_country_code (bool) – Sets whether to include the two-letter ISO code of the country in the response (field name ‘countryRegionIso2’).
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

DataBC

class geopy.geocoders.DataBC(scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Geocoder using the Physical Address Geocoder from DataBC.

Documentation at:
http://www.data.gov.bc.ca/dbc/geographic/locate/geocoding.page
__init__(scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, max_results=25, set_back=0, location_descriptor='any', exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • max_results (int) – The maximum number of resutls to request.
  • set_back (float) – The distance to move the accessPoint away from the curb (in meters) and towards the interior of the parcel. location_descriptor must be set to accessPoint for set_back to take effect.
  • location_descriptor (str) – The type of point requested. It can be any, accessPoint, frontDoorPoint, parcelPoint, rooftopPoint and routingPoint.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

GeocodeEarth

class geopy.geocoders.GeocodeEarth(api_key, format_string=None, boundary_rect=None, country_bias=None, domain='api.geocode.earth', timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, scheme=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Bases: geopy.geocoders.pelias.Pelias

geocode.earth, a Pelias-based service provided by the developers of Pelias itself.

New in version 1.15.0.

__init__(api_key, format_string=None, boundary_rect=None, country_bias=None, domain='api.geocode.earth', timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, scheme=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address, query or structured query to geocode you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

GeocodeFarm

class geopy.geocoders.GeocodeFarm(api_key=None, format_string=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, scheme=None)

Geocoder using the GeocodeFarm API.

Documentation at:
https://www.geocode.farm/geocoding/free-api-documentation/
__init__(api_key=None, format_string=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, scheme=None)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available. GeocodeFarm’s API will always return at most one result.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

GeoNames

class geopy.geocoders.GeoNames(country_bias=None, username=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

GeoNames geocoder.

Documentation at:
http://www.geonames.org/export/geonames-search.html
Reverse geocoding documentation at:
http://www.geonames.org/export/web-services.html#findNearbyPlaceName
__init__(country_bias=None, username=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

New in version 1.2.0.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available.

    Changed in version 1.14.0: Default value for exactly_one was False, which differs from the conventional default across geopy. Please always pass this argument explicitly, otherwise you would get a warning. In geopy 2.0 the default value will become True.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

GoogleV3

class geopy.geocoders.GoogleV3(api_key=None, domain='maps.googleapis.com', scheme=None, client_id=None, secret_key=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, channel='')

Geocoder using the Google Maps v3 API.

Documentation at:
https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/geocoding/

Attention

Since July 2018 Google requires each request to have an API key. See https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/geocoding/usage-and-billing

__init__(api_key=None, domain='maps.googleapis.com', scheme=None, client_id=None, secret_key=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, channel='')
Parameters:
geocode(query=None, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, bounds=None, region=None, components=None, language=None, sensor=False)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) –

    The address or query you wish to geocode. Optional, if components param is set:

    >>> g.geocode(components={"city": "Paris", "country": "FR"})
    Location(France, (46.227638, 2.213749, 0.0))
    

    Changed in version 1.14.0: Now query is optional if components param is set.

  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • bounds (list or tuple of 2 items of geopy.point.Point or (latitude, longitude) or "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) –

    The bounding box of the viewport within which to bias geocode results more prominently. Example: [Point(22, 180), Point(-22, -180)].

    Changed in version 1.17.0: Previously the only supported format for bounds was a list like [latitude, longitude, latitude, longitude]. This format is now deprecated in favor of a list/tuple of a pair of geopy Points and will be removed in geopy 2.0.

  • region (str) – The region code, specified as a ccTLD (“top-level domain”) two-character value.
  • components (dict) – Restricts to an area. Can use any combination of: route, locality, administrative_area, postal_code, country.
  • language (str) – The language in which to return results.
  • sensor (bool) – Whether the geocoding request comes from a device with a location sensor.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, language=None, sensor=False)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available.

    Changed in version 1.14.0: Default value for exactly_one was False, which differs from the conventional default across geopy. Please always pass this argument explicitly, otherwise you would get a warning. In geopy 2.0 the default value will become True.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • language (str) – The language in which to return results.
  • sensor (bool) – Whether the geocoding request comes from a device with a location sensor.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

timezone(location, at_time=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

This is an unstable API.

Finds the timezone a location was in for a specified at_time, and returns a pytz timezone object.

New in version 1.2.0.

Parameters:
  • location (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as “%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s”) – The coordinates for which you want a timezone.
  • at_time (int or float or datetime) – The time at which you want the timezone of this location. This is optional, and defaults to the time that the function is called in UTC.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

pytz timezone. See pytz.timezone().

HERE

class geopy.geocoders.Here(app_id, app_code, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Geocoder using the HERE Geocoder API.

Documentation at:
https://developer.here.com/documentation/geocoder/

New in version 1.15.0.

__init__(app_id, app_code, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, bbox=None, mapview=None, exactly_one=True, maxresults=None, pageinformation=None, language=None, additional_data=False, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

This implementation supports only a subset of all available parameters. A list of all parameters of the pure REST API is available here: https://developer.here.com/documentation/geocoder/topics/resource-geocode.html

Parameters:
  • query (str) –

    The address or query you wish to geocode.

    For a structured query, provide a dictionary whose keys are one of: city, county, district, country, state, street, housenumber, or postalcode.

  • bbox (list or tuple of 2 items of geopy.point.Point or (latitude, longitude) or "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – A type of spatial filter, limits the search for any other attributes in the request. Specified by two coordinate (lat/lon) pairs – corners of the box. The bbox search is currently similar to mapview but it is not extended (cited from the REST API docs). Relevant global results are also returned. Example: [Point(22, 180), Point(-22, -180)].
  • mapview (list or tuple of 2 items of geopy.point.Point or (latitude, longitude) or "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The app’s viewport, given as two coordinate pairs, specified by two lat/lon pairs – corners of the bounding box, respectively. Matches from within the set map view plus an extended area are ranked highest. Relevant global results are also returned. Example: [Point(22, 180), Point(-22, -180)].
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • maxresults (int) – Defines the maximum number of items in the response structure. If not provided and there are multiple results the HERE API will return 10 results by default. This will be reset to one if exactly_one is True.
  • pageinformation (int) – A key which identifies the page to be returned when the response is separated into multiple pages. Only useful when maxresults is also provided.
  • language (str) – Affects the language of the response, must be a RFC 4647 language code, e.g. ‘en-US’.
  • additional_data (str) – A string with key-value pairs as described on https://developer.here.com/documentation/geocoder/topics/resource-params-additional.html. These will be added as one query parameter to the URL.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, radius=None, exactly_one=True, maxresults=None, pageinformation=None, language=None, mode='retrieveAddresses', timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

This implementation supports only a subset of all available parameters. A list of all parameters of the pure REST API is available here: https://developer.here.com/documentation/geocoder/topics/resource-reverse-geocode.html

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • radius (float) – Proximity radius in meters.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • maxresults (int) – Defines the maximum number of items in the response structure. If not provided and there are multiple results the HERE API will return 10 results by default. This will be reset to one if exactly_one is True.
  • pageinformation (int) – A key which identifies the page to be returned when the response is separated into multiple pages. Only useful when maxresults is also provided.
  • language (str) – Affects the language of the response, must be a RFC 4647 language code, e.g. ‘en-US’.
  • mode (str) – Affects the type of returned response items, must be one of: ‘retrieveAddresses’ (default), ‘retrieveAreas’, ‘retrieveLandmarks’, ‘retrieveAll’, or ‘trackPosition’. See online documentation for more information.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

IGNFrance

class geopy.geocoders.IGNFrance(api_key, username=None, password=None, referer=None, domain='wxs.ign.fr', scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Geocoder using the IGN France GeoCoder OpenLS API.

Documentation at:
https://geoservices.ign.fr/documentation/geoservices/index.html
__init__(api_key, username=None, password=None, referer=None, domain='wxs.ign.fr', scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, query_type='StreetAddress', maximum_responses=25, is_freeform=False, filtering=None, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The query string to be geocoded.
  • query_type (str) – The type to provide for geocoding. It can be PositionOfInterest, StreetAddress or CadastralParcel. StreetAddress is the default choice if none provided.
  • maximum_responses (int) – The maximum number of responses to ask to the API in the query body.
  • is_freeform (str) – Set if return is structured with freeform structure or a more structured returned. By default, value is False.
  • filtering (str) – Provide string that help setting geocoder filter. It contains an XML string. See examples in documentation and ignfrance.py file in directory tests.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, reverse_geocode_preference=('StreetAddress', ), maximum_responses=25, filtering='', exactly_one=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • reverse_geocode_preference (list) – Enable to set expected results type. It can be StreetAddress or PositionOfInterest. Default is set to StreetAddress.
  • maximum_responses (int) – The maximum number of responses to ask to the API in the query body.
  • filtering (str) – Provide string that help setting geocoder filter. It contains an XML string. See examples in documentation and ignfrance.py file in directory tests.
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available.

    Changed in version 1.14.0: Default value for exactly_one was False, which differs from the conventional default across geopy. Please always pass this argument explicitly, otherwise you would get a warning. In geopy 2.0 the default value will become True.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

MapBox

class geopy.geocoders.MapBox(api_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='api.mapbox.com')

Geocoder using the Mapbox API.

Documentation at:
https://www.mapbox.com/api-documentation/

New in version 1.17.0.

__init__(api_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='api.mapbox.com')
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proximity=None, country=None, bbox=None)

Return a location point by address

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • proximity (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – A coordinate to bias local results based on a provided location.
  • country (string) – Country to filter result in form of ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code.
  • bbox (list or tuple of 2 items of geopy.point.Point or (latitude, longitude) or "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The bounding box of the viewport within which to bias geocode results more prominently. Example: [Point(22, 180), Point(-22, -180)].
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

OpenCage

class geopy.geocoders.OpenCage(api_key, domain='api.opencagedata.com', scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Geocoder using the OpenCageData API.

Documentation at:
https://opencagedata.com/api

New in version 1.1.0.

__init__(api_key, domain='api.opencagedata.com', scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, bounds=None, country=None, language=None, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • language (str) – an IETF format language code (such as es for Spanish or pt-BR for Brazilian Portuguese); if this is omitted a code of en (English) will be assumed by the remote service.
  • bounds (list or tuple of 2 items of geopy.point.Point or (latitude, longitude) or "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) –

    Provides the geocoder with a hint to the region that the query resides in. This value will help the geocoder but will not restrict the possible results to the supplied region. The bounds parameter should be specified as 2 coordinate points – corners of a bounding box. Example: [Point(22, 180), Point(-22, -180)].

    Changed in version 1.17.0: Previously the only supported format for bounds was a string of "longitude,latitude,longitude,latitude". This format is now deprecated in favor of a list/tuple of a pair of geopy Points and will be removed in geopy 2.0.

  • country (str) – Provides the geocoder with a hint to the country that the query resides in. This value will help the geocoder but will not restrict the possible results to the supplied country. The country code is a 3 character code as defined by the ISO 3166-1 Alpha 3 standard.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, language=None, exactly_one=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • language (str) – The language in which to return results.
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available.

    Changed in version 1.14.0: Default value for exactly_one was False, which differs from the conventional default across geopy. Please always pass this argument explicitly, otherwise you would get a warning. In geopy 2.0 the default value will become True.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

OpenMapQuest

class geopy.geocoders.OpenMapQuest(api_key=None, format_string=None, view_box=None, bounded=False, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='open.mapquestapi.com', scheme=None, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Bases: geopy.geocoders.osm.Nominatim

Geocoder using MapQuest Open Platform Web Services.

Documentation at:
https://developer.mapquest.com/documentation/open/

Changed in version 1.17.0: OpenMapQuest now extends the Nominatim class.

__init__(api_key=None, format_string=None, view_box=None, bounded=False, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='open.mapquestapi.com', scheme=None, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, limit=None, addressdetails=False, language=False, geometry=None, extratags=False)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (dict or str) –

    The address, query or a structured query you wish to geocode.

    Changed in version 1.0.0: For a structured query, provide a dictionary whose keys are one of: street, city, county, state, country, or postalcode. For more information, see Nominatim’s documentation for structured requests:

  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • limit (int) –

    Maximum amount of results to return from Nominatim. Unless exactly_one is set to False, limit will always be 1.

    New in version 1.13.0.

  • addressdetails (bool) – If you want in Location.raw to include addressdetails such as city_district, etc set it to True
  • language (str) –

    Preferred language in which to return results. Either uses standard RFC2616 accept-language string or a simple comma-separated list of language codes.

    New in version 1.0.0.

  • geometry (str) –

    If present, specifies whether the geocoding service should return the result’s geometry in wkt, svg, kml, or geojson formats. This is available via the raw attribute on the returned geopy.location.Location object.

    New in version 1.3.0.

  • extratags (bool) –

    Include additional information in the result if available, e.g. wikipedia link, opening hours.

    New in version 1.17.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, language=False, addressdetails=True)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • language (str) –

    Preferred language in which to return results. Either uses standard RFC2616 accept-language string or a simple comma-separated list of language codes.

    New in version 1.0.0.

  • addressdetails (bool) –

    Whether or not to include address details, such as city, county, state, etc. in Location.raw

    New in version 1.14.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

Nominatim

class geopy.geocoders.Nominatim(format_string=None, view_box=None, bounded=False, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='nominatim.openstreetmap.org', scheme=None, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Nominatim geocoder for OpenStreetMap data.

Documentation at:
https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Nominatim

Attention

Using Nominatim with the default user_agent is strongly discouraged, as it violates Nominatim’s Usage Policy https://operations.osmfoundation.org/policies/nominatim/ and may possibly cause 403 and 429 HTTP errors. Please make sure to specify a custom user_agent with Nominatim(user_agent="my-application") or by overriding the default user_agent: geopy.geocoders.options.default_user_agent = "my-application". In geopy 2.0 an exception will be thrown when a custom user_agent is not specified.

Changed in version 1.16.0: A warning is now issued when a default user_agent is used which restates the Attention block above.

__init__(format_string=None, view_box=None, bounded=False, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='nominatim.openstreetmap.org', scheme=None, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, limit=None, addressdetails=False, language=False, geometry=None, extratags=False)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (dict or str) –

    The address, query or a structured query you wish to geocode.

    Changed in version 1.0.0: For a structured query, provide a dictionary whose keys are one of: street, city, county, state, country, or postalcode. For more information, see Nominatim’s documentation for structured requests:

  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • limit (int) –

    Maximum amount of results to return from Nominatim. Unless exactly_one is set to False, limit will always be 1.

    New in version 1.13.0.

  • addressdetails (bool) – If you want in Location.raw to include addressdetails such as city_district, etc set it to True
  • language (str) –

    Preferred language in which to return results. Either uses standard RFC2616 accept-language string or a simple comma-separated list of language codes.

    New in version 1.0.0.

  • geometry (str) –

    If present, specifies whether the geocoding service should return the result’s geometry in wkt, svg, kml, or geojson formats. This is available via the raw attribute on the returned geopy.location.Location object.

    New in version 1.3.0.

  • extratags (bool) –

    Include additional information in the result if available, e.g. wikipedia link, opening hours.

    New in version 1.17.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, language=False, addressdetails=True)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • language (str) –

    Preferred language in which to return results. Either uses standard RFC2616 accept-language string or a simple comma-separated list of language codes.

    New in version 1.0.0.

  • addressdetails (bool) –

    Whether or not to include address details, such as city, county, state, etc. in Location.raw

    New in version 1.14.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

Pelias

class geopy.geocoders.Pelias(domain, api_key=None, format_string=None, boundary_rect=None, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, scheme=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Pelias geocoder.

Documentation at:
https://github.com/pelias/documentation

See also geopy.geocoders.GeocodeEarth which is a Pelias-based service provided by the developers of Pelias itself.

Changed in version 1.15.0: Mapzen geocoder has been renamed to Pelias.

__init__(domain, api_key=None, format_string=None, boundary_rect=None, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, scheme=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address, query or structured query to geocode you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

Photon

class geopy.geocoders.Photon(format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='photon.komoot.de', user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Geocoder using Photon geocoding service (data based on OpenStreetMap and service provided by Komoot on https://photon.komoot.de).

Documentation at:
https://github.com/komoot/photon

Photon/Komoot geocoder aims to let you search as you type with OpenStreetMap. No API Key is needed by this platform.

__init__(format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='photon.komoot.de', user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, location_bias=None, language=False, limit=None, osm_tag=None)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • location_bias – The coordinates to used as location bias.
  • language (str) – Preferred language in which to return results.
  • limit (int) –

    Limit the number of returned results, defaults to no limit.

    New in version 1.12.0.

  • osm_tag (str or list or set) – The expression to filter (include/exclude) by key and/ or value, str as 'key:value' or list/set of str if multiple filters are required as ['key:!val', '!key', ':!value'].
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, language=False, limit=None)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • language (str) – Preferred language in which to return results.
  • limit (int) –

    Limit the number of returned results, defaults to no limit.

    New in version 1.12.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

PickPoint

class geopy.geocoders.PickPoint(api_key, format_string=None, view_box=None, bounded=False, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='api.pickpoint.io', scheme=None, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Bases: geopy.geocoders.osm.Nominatim

PickPoint geocoder is a commercial version of Nominatim.

Documentation at:
https://pickpoint.io/api-reference

New in version 1.13.0.

__init__(api_key, format_string=None, view_box=None, bounded=False, country_bias=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='api.pickpoint.io', scheme=None, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, limit=None, addressdetails=False, language=False, geometry=None, extratags=False)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (dict or str) –

    The address, query or a structured query you wish to geocode.

    Changed in version 1.0.0: For a structured query, provide a dictionary whose keys are one of: street, city, county, state, country, or postalcode. For more information, see Nominatim’s documentation for structured requests:

  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • limit (int) –

    Maximum amount of results to return from Nominatim. Unless exactly_one is set to False, limit will always be 1.

    New in version 1.13.0.

  • addressdetails (bool) – If you want in Location.raw to include addressdetails such as city_district, etc set it to True
  • language (str) –

    Preferred language in which to return results. Either uses standard RFC2616 accept-language string or a simple comma-separated list of language codes.

    New in version 1.0.0.

  • geometry (str) –

    If present, specifies whether the geocoding service should return the result’s geometry in wkt, svg, kml, or geojson formats. This is available via the raw attribute on the returned geopy.location.Location object.

    New in version 1.3.0.

  • extratags (bool) –

    Include additional information in the result if available, e.g. wikipedia link, opening hours.

    New in version 1.17.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, language=False, addressdetails=True)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • language (str) –

    Preferred language in which to return results. Either uses standard RFC2616 accept-language string or a simple comma-separated list of language codes.

    New in version 1.0.0.

  • addressdetails (bool) –

    Whether or not to include address details, such as city, county, state, etc. in Location.raw

    New in version 1.14.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

LiveAddress

class geopy.geocoders.LiveAddress(auth_id, auth_token, candidates=1, scheme='https', timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Geocoder using the LiveAddress API provided by SmartyStreets.

Documentation at:
https://smartystreets.com/docs/cloud/us-street-api
__init__(auth_id, auth_token, candidates=1, scheme='https', timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

TomTom

class geopy.geocoders.TomTom(api_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='api.tomtom.com')

TomTom geocoder.

Documentation at:
https://developer.tomtom.com/online-search/online-search-documentation

New in version 1.15.0.

__init__(api_key, format_string=None, scheme=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, domain='api.tomtom.com')
Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, limit=None, typeahead=False, language=None)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • limit (int) – Maximum amount of results to return from the service. Unless exactly_one is set to False, limit will always be 1.
  • typeahead (bool) – If the “typeahead” flag is set, the query will be interpreted as a partial input and the search will enter predictive mode.
  • language (str) – Language in which search results should be returned. When data in specified language is not available for a specific field, default language is used. List of supported languages (case-insensitive): https://developer.tomtom.com/online-search/online-search-documentation/supported-languages
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

What3Words

class geopy.geocoders.What3Words(api_key, format_string=None, scheme='https', timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

What3Words geocoder.

Documentation at:
https://docs.what3words.com/api/v2/

New in version 1.5.0.

Changed in version 1.15.0: API has been updated to v2.

__init__(api_key, format_string=None, scheme='https', timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)
Parameters:
geocode(query, lang='en', exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point for a 3 words query. If the 3 words address doesn’t exist, a geopy.exc.GeocoderQueryError exception will be thrown.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The 3-word address you wish to geocode.
  • lang (str) – two character language codes as supported by the API (https://docs.what3words.com/api/v2/#lang).
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available. Due to the address scheme there is always exactly one result for each 3 words address, so this parameter is rather useless for this geocoder.

    Changed in version 1.14.0: exactly_one=False now returns a list of a single location. This option wasn’t respected before.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, lang='en', exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a 3 words address by location point. Each point on surface has a 3 words address, so there’s always a non-empty response.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the 3 word address.
  • lang (str) – two character language codes as supported by the API (https://docs.what3words.com/api/v2/#lang).
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available. Due to the address scheme there is always exactly one result for each 3 words address, so this parameter is rather useless for this geocoder.

    Changed in version 1.14.0: exactly_one=False now returns a list of a single location. This option wasn’t respected before.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

Yandex

class geopy.geocoders.Yandex(api_key=None, lang=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, scheme=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Yandex geocoder.

Documentation at:
https://tech.yandex.com/maps/doc/geocoder/desc/concepts/input_params-docpage/

New in version 1.5.0.

__init__(api_key=None, lang=None, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, proxies=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, user_agent=None, scheme=None, format_string=None, ssl_context=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Changed in version 1.14.0: Default scheme has been changed from http to https.

Parameters:
geocode(query, exactly_one=True, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL)

Return a location point by address.

Parameters:
  • query (str) – The address or query you wish to geocode.
  • exactly_one (bool) – Return one result or a list of results, if available.
  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

reverse(query, exactly_one=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, timeout=DEFAULT_SENTINEL, kind=None)

Return an address by location point.

Parameters:
  • query (geopy.point.Point, list or tuple of (latitude, longitude), or string as "%(latitude)s, %(longitude)s".) – The coordinates for which you wish to obtain the closest human-readable addresses.
  • exactly_one (bool) –

    Return one result or a list of results, if available.

    Changed in version 1.14.0: Default value for exactly_one was False, which differs from the conventional default across geopy. Please always pass this argument explicitly, otherwise you would get a warning. In geopy 2.0 the default value will become True.

  • timeout (int) – Time, in seconds, to wait for the geocoding service to respond before raising a geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut exception. Set this only if you wish to override, on this call only, the value set during the geocoder’s initialization.
  • kind (str) –

    Type of toponym. Allowed values: house, street, metro, district, locality.

    New in version 1.14.0.

Return type:

None, geopy.location.Location or a list of them, if exactly_one=False.

Calculating Distance

Geopy can calculate geodesic distance between two points using the geodesic distance or the great-circle distance, with a default of the geodesic distance available as the function geopy.distance.distance.

Great-circle distance (great_circle) uses a spherical model of the earth, using the mean earth radius as defined by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, (2a + b)/3 = 6371.0087714150598 kilometers approx 6371.009 km (for WGS-84), resulting in an error of up to about 0.5%. The radius value is stored in distance.EARTH_RADIUS, so it can be customized (it should always be in kilometers, however).

The geodesic distance is the shortest distance on the surface of an ellipsoidal model of the earth. The default algorithm uses the method is given by Karney (2013) (geodesic); this is accurate to round-off and always converges. An older deprecated method due to Vincenty (1975) (vincenty) is also available; this is only accurate to 0.2 mm and the distance calculation fails to converge for nearly antipodal points.

geopy.distance.distance currently uses geodesic.

There are multiple popular ellipsoidal models, and which one will be the most accurate depends on where your points are located on the earth. The default is the WGS-84 ellipsoid, which is the most globally accurate. geopy includes a few other models in the distance.ELLIPSOIDS dictionary:

              model             major (km)   minor (km)     flattening
ELLIPSOIDS = {'WGS-84':        (6378.137,    6356.7523142,  1 / 298.257223563),
              'GRS-80':        (6378.137,    6356.7523141,  1 / 298.257222101),
              'Airy (1830)':   (6377.563396, 6356.256909,   1 / 299.3249646),
              'Intl 1924':     (6378.388,    6356.911946,   1 / 297.0),
              'Clarke (1880)': (6378.249145, 6356.51486955, 1 / 293.465),
              'GRS-67':        (6378.1600,   6356.774719,   1 / 298.25),
              }

Here are examples of distance.distance usage:

>>> from geopy import distance
>>> newport_ri = (41.49008, -71.312796)
>>> cleveland_oh = (41.499498, -81.695391)
>>> print(distance.distance(newport_ri, cleveland_oh).miles)
538.39044536

>>> wellington = (-41.32, 174.81)
>>> salamanca = (40.96, -5.50)
>>> print(distance.distance(wellington, salamanca).km)
19959.6792674

The second example above fails with vincenty.

Using great_circle distance:

>>> print(distance.great_circle(newport_ri, cleveland_oh).miles)
536.997990696

You can change the ellipsoid model used by the geodesic formulas like so:

>>> ne, cl = newport_ri, cleveland_oh
>>> print(distance.geodesic(ne, cl, ellipsoid='GRS-80').miles)

The above model name will automatically be retrieved from the distance.ELLIPSOIDS dictionary. Alternatively, you can specify the model values directly:

>>> distance.geodesic(ne, cl, ellipsoid=(6377., 6356., 1 / 297.)).miles

Distances support simple arithmetic, making it easy to do things like calculate the length of a path:

>>> from geopy import Nominatim
>>> d = distance.distance
>>> g = Nominatim(user_agent="specify_your_app_name_here")
>>> _, wa = g.geocode('Washington, DC')
>>> _, pa = g.geocode('Palo Alto, CA')
>>> print((d(ne, cl) + d(cl, wa) + d(wa, pa)).miles)
3277.30439191
geopy.distance.lonlat(x, y, z=0)

geopy.distance.distance accepts coordinates in (y, x)/(lat, lon) order, while some other libraries and systems might use (x, y)/(lon, lat).

This function provides a convenient way to convert coordinates of the (x, y)/(lon, lat) format to a geopy.point.Point instance.

Example:

>>> from geopy.distance import lonlat, distance
>>> newport_ri_xy = (-71.312796, 41.49008)
>>> cleveland_oh_xy = (-81.695391, 41.499498)
>>> print(distance(lonlat(*newport_ri_xy), lonlat(*cleveland_oh_xy)).miles)
538.3904453677203
Parameters:
  • x – longitude
  • y – latitude
  • z – (optional) altitude
Returns:

Point(latitude, longitude, altitude)

class geopy.distance.geodesic(*args, **kwargs)

Calculate the geodesic distance between two points.

Set which ellipsoidal model of the earth to use by specifying an ellipsoid keyword argument. The default is ‘WGS-84’, which is the most globally accurate model. If ellipsoid is a string, it is looked up in the ELLIPSOIDS dictionary to obtain the major and minor semiaxes and the flattening. Otherwise, it should be a tuple with those values. See the comments above the ELLIPSOIDS dictionary for more information.

Example:

>>> from geopy.distance import geodesic
>>> newport_ri = (41.49008, -71.312796)
>>> cleveland_oh = (41.499498, -81.695391)
>>> print(geodesic(newport_ri, cleveland_oh).miles)
538.390445368

New in version 1.13.0.

__init__(*args, **kwargs)

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

class geopy.distance.vincenty(*args, **kwargs)

Deprecated since version 1.13: Use geodesic instead. Vincenty will be removed in geopy 2.0.

Calculate the geodesic distance between two points using the Vincenty’s method.

Set which ellipsoidal model of the earth to use by specifying an ellipsoid keyword argument. The default is ‘WGS-84’, which is the most globally accurate model. If ellipsoid is a string, it is looked up in the ELLIPSOIDS dictionary to obtain the major and minor semiaxes and the flattening. Otherwise, it should be a tuple with those values. See the comments above the ELLIPSOIDS dictionary for more information.

Example:

>>> from geopy.distance import vincenty
>>> newport_ri = (41.49008, -71.312796)
>>> cleveland_oh = (41.499498, -81.695391)
>>> print(vincenty(newport_ri, cleveland_oh).miles)
538.390445362

Note: Vincenty’s method for distance fails to converge for some valid (nearly antipodal) points. In such cases, use geodesic which always produces an accurate result.

__init__(*args, **kwargs)

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

class geopy.distance.great_circle(*args, **kwargs)

Use spherical geometry to calculate the surface distance between two points.

Set which radius of the earth to use by specifying a radius keyword argument. It must be in kilometers. The default is to use the module constant EARTH_RADIUS, which uses the average great-circle radius.

Example:

>>> from geopy.distance import great_circle
>>> newport_ri = (41.49008, -71.312796)
>>> cleveland_oh = (41.499498, -81.695391)
>>> print(great_circle(newport_ri, cleveland_oh).miles)
536.997990696
__init__(*args, **kwargs)

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

Data

class geopy.location.Location(address='', point=None, raw=None)

Contains a parsed geocoder response. Can be iterated over as (location<String>, (latitude<float>, longitude<Float)). Or one can access the properties address, latitude, longitude, or raw. The last is a dictionary of the geocoder’s response for this item.

__init__(address='', point=None, raw=None)

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

address

Location as a formatted string returned by the geocoder or constructed by geopy, depending on the service.

Return type:unicode
altitude

Location’s altitude.

Return type:float or None
latitude

Location’s latitude.

Return type:float or None
longitude

Location’s longitude.

Return type:float or None
point

geopy.point.Point instance representing the location’s latitude, longitude, and altitude.

Return type:geopy.point.Point or None
raw

Location’s raw, unparsed geocoder response. For details on this, consult the service’s documentation.

Return type:dict or None
class geopy.point.Point

A geodetic point with latitude, longitude, and altitude.

Latitude and longitude are floating point values in degrees. Altitude is a floating point value in kilometers. The reference level is never considered and is thus application dependent, so be consistent! The default for all values is 0.

Points can be created in a number of ways…

With latitude, longitude, and altitude:

>>> p1 = Point(41.5, -81, 0)
>>> p2 = Point(latitude=41.5, longitude=-81)

With a sequence of 0 to 3 values (latitude, longitude, altitude):

>>> p1 = Point([41.5, -81, 0])
>>> p2 = Point((41.5, -81))

Copy another Point instance:

>>> p2 = Point(p1)
>>> p2 == p1
True
>>> p2 is p1
False

Give a string containing at least latitude and longitude:

>>> p1 = Point('41.5,-81.0')
>>> p2 = Point('41.5 N -81.0 W')
>>> p3 = Point('-41.5 S, 81.0 E, 2.5km')
>>> p4 = Point('23 26m 22s N 23 27m 30s E 21.0mi')
>>> p5 = Point('''3 26' 22" N 23 27' 30" E''')

Point values can be accessed by name or by index:

>>> p = Point(41.5, -81.0, 0)
>>> p.latitude == p[0]
True
>>> p.longitude == p[1]
True
>>> p.altitude == p[2]
True

When unpacking (or iterating), a (latitude, longitude, altitude) tuple is returned:

>>> latitude, longitude, altitude = p
static __new__(cls, latitude=None, longitude=None, altitude=None)
Parameters:
  • latitude (float) – Latitude of point.
  • longitude (float) – Longitude of point.
  • altitude (float) – Altitude of point.
classmethod from_point(point)

Create and return a new Point instance from another Point instance.

classmethod from_sequence(seq)

Create and return a new Point instance from any iterable with 0 to 3 elements. The elements, if present, must be latitude, longitude, and altitude, respectively.

classmethod from_string(string)

Create and return a Point instance from a string containing latitude and longitude, and optionally, altitude.

Latitude and longitude must be in degrees and may be in decimal form or indicate arcminutes and arcseconds (labeled with Unicode prime and double prime, ASCII quote and double quote or ‘m’ and ‘s’). The degree symbol is optional and may be included after the decimal places (in decimal form) and before the arcminutes and arcseconds otherwise. Coordinates given from south and west (indicated by S and W suffixes) will be converted to north and east by switching their signs. If no (or partial) cardinal directions are given, north and east are the assumed directions. Latitude and longitude must be separated by at least whitespace, a comma, or a semicolon (each with optional surrounding whitespace).

Altitude, if supplied, must be a decimal number with given units. The following unit abbrevations (case-insensitive) are supported:

  • km (kilometers)
  • m (meters)
  • mi (miles)
  • ft (feet)
  • nm, nmi (nautical miles)

Some example strings that will work include:

  • 41.5;-81.0
  • 41.5,-81.0
  • 41.5 -81.0
  • 41.5 N -81.0 W
  • -41.5 S;81.0 E
  • 23 26m 22s N 23 27m 30s E
  • 23 26' 22" N 23 27' 30" E
  • UT: N 39°20' 0'' / W 74°35' 0''

Exceptions

class geopy.exc.GeopyError

Bases: Exception

Geopy-specific exceptions are all inherited from GeopyError.

class geopy.exc.ConfigurationError

Bases: geopy.exc.GeopyError

When instantiating a geocoder, the arguments given were invalid. See the documentation of each geocoder’s __init__ for more details.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

Bases: geopy.exc.GeopyError

There was an exception caused when calling the remote geocoding service, and no more specific exception could be raised by geopy. When calling geocoders’ geocode or reverse methods, this is the most generic exception that can be raised, and any non-geopy exception will be caught and turned into this. The exception’s message will be that of the original exception.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderQueryError

Bases: geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

Either geopy detected input that would cause a request to fail, or a request was made and the remote geocoding service responded that the request was bad.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderQuotaExceeded

Bases: geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

The remote geocoding service refused to fulfill the request because the client has used its quota.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderAuthenticationFailure

Bases: geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

The remote geocoding service rejected the API key or account credentials this geocoder was instantiated with.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderInsufficientPrivileges

Bases: geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

The remote geocoding service refused to fulfill a request using the account credentials given.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderTimedOut

Bases: geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

The call to the geocoding service was aborted because no response has been received within the timeout argument of either the geocoding class or, if specified, the method call. Some services are just consistently slow, and a higher timeout may be needed to use them.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderUnavailable

Bases: geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

Either it was not possible to establish a connection to the remote geocoding service, or the service responded with a code indicating it was unavailable.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderParseError

Bases: geopy.exc.GeocoderServiceError

Geopy could not parse the service’s response. This is probably due to a bug in geopy.

class geopy.exc.GeocoderNotFound

Bases: geopy.exc.GeopyError

Caller requested the geocoder matching a string, e.g., "google" > GoogleV3, but no geocoder could be found.

Logging

geopy will log geocoding URLs with a logger name geopy at level DEBUG, and for some geocoders, these URLs will include authentication information.

HTTP bodies of responses with unsuccessful status codes are logged with INFO level.

Default logging level is NOTSET, which delegates the messages processing to the root logger. See docs for logging.Logger.setLevel() for more information.

Semver

geopy attempts to follow semantic versioning, however some breaking changes are still being made in minor releases, such as:

  • Backwards-incompatible changes of the undocumented API. This shouldn’t affect anyone, unless they extend geocoder classes or use undocumented features or monkey-patch anything. If you believe that something is missing in geopy, please consider opening an issue or providing a patch or a PR instead of hacking around geopy.
  • Geocoder classes which simply don’t work (usually because their service has been discontinued) might get removed. They don’t work anyway, so that’s hardly a breaking change, right? :)
  • Geocoding services sometimes introduce new APIs and deprecate the previous ones. We try to upgrade without breaking the geocoder’s API interface, but the geopy.location.Location.raw value might change in a backwards-incompatible way.
  • Behavior for invalid input and peculiar edge cases might be altered. For example, geopy.point.Point instances did coordinate values normalization, though it’s not documented, and it was completely wrong for the latitudes outside the [-90; 90] range. So instead of using an incorrectly normalized value for latitude, an ValueError exception is now thrown (#294).

To make the upgrade less painful, please read the changelog before upgrading.

Changelog

Changelog for 1.x.x series.

For changes in the 0.9 series, see the 0.9x changelog.